Both Newton and Einstein claimed that gravitational acceleration is independent of the mass or the energy being accelerated. Another idea that Newton and Einstein professed, was the equivalency of inertial mass and gravitational mass. Newton assumed these two mass units were equal without giving a reason for thinking why they should be equal. This disturbed Einstein, he wanted to know the reason why they are equal. Newton also said in the Principia, "We have explained the phenomena of the heavens and of our sea by the power of gravity, but have not yet assigned the cause of this power... I have not been able to discover the cause of those properties of gravity from the phenomena, and I frame no hypotheses; for what ever is not deduced from phenomena is to be called an hypothesis; and hypothesis, whether metaphysical or physical, whether of occult qualities or mechanical, have no place in experimental philosophy." Mook 148

Einstein did not provide an answer to this question raised by Newton concerning the "cause" of gravity, but he did create a much more accurate model of gravity than did Newton; and, perhaps more significant, Einstein's model is far richer in its consequences. Nevertheless, one is still left with a question that asks: "How is it possible...?" Just as with Newton's model, which leads to action at a distance without a real cause, Einstein's model leaves one with a geometric curvature of space without a cause. Einstein worked till his dyeing day seeking that cause, as well as a theory that would unify the forces of nature, but to no avail. Einstein was not satisfied with Newton's simple acceptance of the principle of equivalence; he devised an idea that was to explain this principle. He claimed the following: -

"In any small region of space, the effects produced by gravitation are the same as those by an acceleration." 141

The following is a modern version of his idea. He devised a laboratory room in a spaceship, remote from any other mass influence, equipped with a rocket motor at the bottom, and the rocket is turned off. Now he turns on the rocket motor; one feels himself pressed down to the floor of the laboratory due to the constant acceleration. A ball thrown up in the room comes down with the same speed as the spaceship, for instance, 32 ft. per sec., per sec.

He now moves the rocket ship to the earth and simply hovers above the ground. Again, a ball thrown up in the room comes down, 32 ft per second, per second. Einstein thus proves, in any small region of space, the effect produced by acceleration is the same as the effect produced by gravity. It was a profound realization in the life of physics at that time; it proved that the inertial charge of mass was equal to the gravitational charge of mass. Nevertheless, no way did it explain what was inertial mass or a cause for the gravity charge. It just maintained that they are equal to one another, thus, providing an unaccountable insight.

Einstein's principle of equivalence began with the qualification: "in any small region of space." This is required for if a rocket ship laboratory room was as wide as the planet above which it hovered, and a ball was released at both ends of the room at some height above the floor, then, due to the force of gravity they would tend to come together as they descended. This is because they would be heading toward the center of the planet, and certainly to the bottom of the room; nevertheless, in an accelerated room the same size away from the planet, they would fall straight down to the floor of the room at both ends. See Fig 1, Fig 2

Another principle that Einstein postulated in "The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity" is a principle also found in the original special theory of relativity. "The laws of physics must be the same for all observers moving in inertial (non-accelerated) reference frames." 139

According to this principle there are no privileged inertial reference frames in the universe. In the special theory this principal holds true, but Einstein wanted to extend this principle to a general theory for all motions: -

"The laws of physics must be of such a nature that they apply to systems of reference in any kind of motion." 139

In the special theory Einstein did not include accelerated reference frames, because with an actual experiment, one can feel this acceleration of its own accord, and without reference to any outside source. In other words, accelerated systems appear to be special or privileged, their acceleration seemed to be absolute, which is something that Einstein did not like about Newton's theory of absolute space, absolute time, and absolute motion. Einstein sought to extend the notion of equality of perspective, established for non- accelerating reference frames in special relativity, by stating that any and all frames of reference are equally valid for expressing the laws of physics. Einstein realized he had a problem that had to be solved first before he could extend his special theory to a general theory. Einstein solved this problem with what he called ---"the happiest thought of my life;" a thought he developed into the principle of equivalence. Einstein said of his happy though: "I was sitting in a chair in the patent office at Bern when all of a sudden a thought occurred to me: 'If a person falls freely he will not feel his own weight,' I was startled. This simple thought made a deep impression on me. It impelled me toward a theory of gravitation." 141

For instance, standing on a scale inside an airplane, setting on the apron of the runway ready to take off, a person gets on a scale and finds he weighs 150 lbs. The plane takes off and flies 50,000 feet into the sky. The pilot puts the plane into a nose dive, 32 ft. per second, per second; standing on the scale again, he does not register any weigh at all. Why is he weightless? The pilot pulls out of the dive; the person puts on a parachute and jumps out. He has that same feeling of weightlessness he had in the plane when it was in a dive at 32 ft per second, per second. Newton says, he better start worrying, the earth is reaching out grabbing a hold of him, dragging him back to earth, so, he had better actuate his chute. Newton calculates the force by multiplying the universal gravitational constant times the mass of the earth and the person's mass, and divides the product by the square of the distance between the person and the earth. He claims the attractive force of gravity has a hold of the individual, and it will bring him down to earth. Newton claims that the person is reaching out grabbing a hold of the earth and pulling the earth toward him; this in accordance with Newton's third law, but the person, of course, has little or no effect on the earth. F = G M m / r^2, this is Newton's equation for the law of gravity.

Newton figured that a force is acting upon the falling individual; because the first law states: every body continues in a state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless compelled to change that state by a force impressed upon it. In a person's free fall situation; Newton claims the force of the earth's gravity is reaching out, pulling him down to the earth. Einstein knew he had his work cut out for him. He had to eliminate that action at a distance; a notion which even Newton did not like to admit, yet had to accept for the want of a better reason. Newton did not like the idea, and said so to friends. Einstein thought about the notion of the free fall affect. He figured this same affect would happen to an object floating around in a box if the box suddenly accelerated up at 32 ft per second, per second. The object then would appear to fall to the bottom of the box to any one in the box at the rate of 32 ft per second, per second. Hence, its gravitational mass is equal to its inertial mass; consequently, the effect of acceleration produces the effect of gravitation. Now all he had to do was to accelerate a falling person to the earth without the earth acting upon the person with the action at a distance which, at that time, did not make any sense to Einstein.

In order for Einstein to accomplish this idea, he developed the "Spacetime Continuum" and the idea of a geodesic in spacetime as referring to the connections between events in spacetime. For one thing, he needed to eliminate the sun's force of attraction, which was thought to cause the earth to fall toward the sun due to this gravitational tug. In order to do this he devised the idea of a four dimensional continuum, three in space and one in time. If he rid the sun of acting at a distance, then, this would solve his problem.

First consider how Newton's force of gravity works; it has to do with Newton's laws of motion, noted above, which are spelled out as follows: stated in the Principia: 32

Law 1: Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a right (straight) line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it.

Law 2: The change of motion is proportional to the motive force impressed; and is made in the direction of the right (straight) line in which that force is impressed.

Law 3: To every action there is always an opposed and equal reaction: or, mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal, and directed to contrary parts. (opposite direction)

First, Newton thought that the earth was trying to move in a straight line according to his first law. Second, he assumed that since the earth was not going in a straight line, as required by the first law, then a force was acting upon it, changing its direction toward the sun. Third, he assumed the sun was exercising a force of attraction upon the earth, due to the sun's massive size; and, according to his second law, he could calculate both the direction and the magnitude of the applied force. Newton's third law permitted him to know and understand what he thought was a "fictional" force, commonly called "centrifugal force". The attraction of the sun's gravitational force provoked an equal and opposite reaction by the earth; as a result, the forces balanced each other causing the earth to orbit the sun.

This was the line of reasoning with which Einstein had to contend. The solution he used to solve his problem he called the General Theory of Relativity. It involves the use of a non-Euclidean geometry; and, a set of mathematical rules invented by earlier mathematicians named Gauss and Riemann. It has to do with a non-Euclidean continuum and tensor calculus. Einstein developed equations for dealing with this metric form of spacetime. The theory deals with a set of covariant equations that will determine the components Gik of the metric tensor, which involves differential tensor calculus. Einstein, 154

The calculations are deep and involved in mathematical know how which Einstein first had to learn himself. It has to do with non-Euclidean geometry which will not be formally developed. Accordingly, one can get a somewhat better picture of what was going through his mind if one reviews what he thought about space; what goes on in space, and what he thought is happening to the space around the sun due to the sun's mass.

Einstein said in his book "Relativity:" --- "It is indeed an exacting requirement to have to ascribe physical reality to space in general, and especially to empty space. Time and again since remotest times philosophers have resisted such a presumption. Descartes argued somewhat on these lines: space is identical with extension, but extension is connected with bodies; thus, there is no space without bodies; hence, no empty space." 136

Einstein refuted Descartes argument then turned around and said, ..."We shall see later, however, that the general theory of relativity confirms Descartes' concept in a roundabout way." 136

Einstein, having done away with the "Ether Theory", had to admit that space had its own reality in order for his General Relativity Theory to work; space is capable of "Elasticity". One of Einstein's proofs was that light, coming from a star close to the sun, bends toward the sun, thus, displacing the star in the heavens as seen from the earth. See Fig 3

Einstein claimed the sun caused the space to bend toward it; the star's light is actually moving in a straight line. In addition, the earth, as well as all the planets as required by Newton's first law, will move in a straight line. Because the sun is bending the space around it; consequently, they follow the bend of the space around the sun. Einstein's tensor calculus shows how this bend is accomplished, bit by bit, in the form of differential equations. Einstein gave no reason or cause why the sun should bend the space around it.

Given that the earth follows a straight line path that curves around the sun; what happens to the falling person when he jumps out of a plane? Is he following a straight line? The answer is in the affirmative. Thus, as he follows the earth around the sun, that straight line curves toward the earth; indeed, the space around the earth is also curved inwardly. Einstein's theory of gravity did not answer Newton's question: "How is it possible? Einstein's theory proposed that the geometrical curvature of space around mass caused bodies to follow the curved space around mass; which objects normally would follow a straight line path according to Newton's first law. If a body's velocity does not equal the escape velocity of earth, as the moon's velocity does, it simply moves inwardly toward the earth, following the curved space around the earth, as both move through space. Einstein merely states it as a fact, without giving the cause for space being non-Euclidean. His theory proposes space to be non-Euclidean around mass, although in space away from mass, his theory proposes space to be Euclidean. Experiment seems to indicate that both conditions are true. The question remains; " Why? ". Why does the earth follow a geodesic around the sun?


Not only is space non-Euclidean around mass, and perhaps Euclidean the further away from mass one gets, regardless, one must treat space as a whole body, as a single unit. It just so happens there is an experiment a person can make that, when properly interpreted, actually proves that space must be physically treated as a single unit. Nevertheless, this single unit, as will be discuss later, is "quantized" in a very special way. It is an experimental fact that the Foucault Pendulum, once set in motion, maintains its orientation relative to the universe as a whole, regardless of what direction its initial thrust is made, east-west, north-south, or any direction in between. The pendulum always maintains that same fixed direction in space, relative to infinity, despite the rotation of the earth.

The Foucault Pendulum is quite an ordinary pendulum, except it has a very long suspension cord with a very heavy bob on its end. Once set in motion, it will continue to swing for hours. On the floor is a ring indicating the east-west, north-south, and the other compass points. As the pendulum swings it gradually reorients itself. For instance, if set to swing east-west it will progressively move itself toward the north-south plane. Set up at the north pole, its oscillatory plane would make a complete turn about the vertical axis in a period of 24 hours. It's swing completely ignores the rotation of the earth; the earth turns beneath it. By orienting his pendulum, first to the sun, Foucault found that, after a month had past, it appears the oscillatory plane turned more rapidly than the sun, in fact, it was fully 15 degrees off. Again, reorienting it to the star Sirius, Foucault found that even this celestial unit moves relative to the pendulum swing. Finally, he discovered that the pendulum will not maintain its orientation to any celestial unit, in fact, the further out in space a galaxy exits, the longer it maintains its loyalty to that orientation. He finally concluded that the pendulum maintains its orientation to space as a single unit, to the universe as a whole; for the pendulum orients itself stationary relative to the, so called, fossil glow. This radiation, which is receive on earth, comes from what seems like infinite space. Some physicist think this energy originated some fifteen to twenty billion light-years ago in what they call the Big Bang. An Austrian physicist, Ernst Mach, saw this as the presence of a mysterious influence emanating from the mass of the universe as a whole. It is called "Mach's Principle." As will be noted later; it is not mass that presents the mysterious force, it is the expansion of space that maintains a presence and an influence on all mass. This force unites mass in a universal system. There is a force operating on Foucault's Pendulum. Once set in motion, it becomes a free agent, accountable only to the force of space as a whole unit; or of the universe as a whole. The Pendulum will swing in that orientation until all of its peripheral energy is used up, or unless it is otherwise deviated. This makes one realize that the universe, as a whole, is ever present at every place, and at every instant of time; it exercises a force that all mass must adhere to. See Fig 4 --- below


The role of mass in Newton's philosophy, and the laws of nature he contrived, first consisted of material points, which moved in absolute space, and absolute time, with absolute motion. Space and time being the framework where relations between these material points took place. Secondly, the role of mass concerned inertia; an inertial system suspended in space and time. Newton's physical reality was that all inertia systems are material points, regardless of their extended features or chemical processes and makeup, and moved independent of the observer, or of space and time. Space and time are only the stage within and upon which physical entities and happenings took place. If all matter disappeared, space and time would remain as a stage upon which other physical things could arise to take their place and make things happen again.

The first understanding that arose to overthrow Newton's philosophy was the "field concept, " it took the place of material points, i.e., the inertial system of points. The simplest form of the field concept was heat. The law of heat conduction being represented by differential equations, which embraced all special cases of heat; a function of coordinates and of time. The relationship was only a preview of the concept of fields to be presented later. No doubt many physicists had a hand in the ideas, although Michael Faraday was the one credited with this new concept. Faraday ushered in the real field concept of mass in his experiment with electricity and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell, with his mathematical skills, developed Faraday's ideas into a system of equations that are the hall mark of electrodynamics; even until today. See Fig 5

From their experiments, Michelson-Morley assumed that the earth and all the planets did not disturb the ether field, they considered the field parts were at rest with one another. They did not find the ether wind they thought must exists as the earth traveled through space.

Lorentz treated ether particles as the embodiment of space absolutely at rest. When Lorentz once assumed this attitude about the ether, he was able to devise a set of transformation equations vastly different from the Galileo transformation equations; thus, he solved the Michelson-Morley experiment paradox.

Einstein found there seemed to be a defect with the ether theory. It was not compatible with his special theory of relativity. Lorentz supposed the ether not moving. Einstein eliminated it entirely in order for his four dimensional spacetime continuum to take hold and make sense. There was no absolute time; and there was no absolute space and there was no ether. Einstein's idea had to do with the notion of simultaneous events.


It was thought that a number of events, occurring in space at the same time, were seen by all relative observers at the same time; simultaneously. On close analysis, Einstein discovered what was considered to be two events happening simultaneously for one person, may not appear to be simultaneous for another person. Einstein used two separate lightning bolts hitting a railroad tract. Exactly at the midpoint between the flashing bolts a person standing beside the bank of the tract. At the time the lightning bolts strike the railroad tract a passenger train passes by. The stage is set; Einstein's special relativity theory says the person on the railroad bank sees both of these flashes from the lightning bolts, simultaneously, and measures the speed of light to be 186,000 miles per second. The person in the passenger train, moving down the track, sees the lightning bolt that struck the track in front of him first, then, he sees the flash from the lightning bolt which struck the tract to the rear of the train second, that is, a little time later on. The idea that then comes to light is that the relativity theory says that in both instances, the person on the moving train measures the speed of light at 186,000 miles per second, in both instances, regardless of how fast he is moving. Each time the traveler measures the speed of light, the first flash first and the second flash second, the speed of light is at the same rate of speed, 186,000 miles per second, regardless of his own speed. Everyone thought a person should subtract the speed of the train from the speed of the light ray to get the proper speed of light. Einstein's theory says, no way, the speed of light travels independent of its source or the observer; it registers the same speed, 186,000 miles per second for all inertial frames of reference moving non-accelerated. He used a set of transformation equations exactly like the Lorentz equations to show what occurs under different circumstances. These equations tell one that the train and rulers shrink in the direction of travel and that clocks on the train slow down depending upon the rate of speed. Instruments adjust in a physical way so that measurements of light move at the same rate of speed as the person on the bank. In this way the laws of nature all act the same way for all people moving relative to one another regardless of their relative speeds. Einstein replace Newton's absolute space and time with his "Spacetime Continuum". See fig 7


Considering Quantum Mechanics; this energy quantum theory began with Max Planck and his discovery that energy travels in tiny bundles. He claimed energy equals the frequency times a small quantity called the erg/second, represented by the letter h, now referred to as Planck's constant. Heinz R. Pagels in his book, "The Cosmic Code - Quantum Physics as the Language of Nature", reveals how physicist view energy and mass today. He tells how the modern field theory had its birth in the attempt to unite quantum mechanics with relativity into a single theory, this was back in the 1930's. Physicists were trying to delineate the interactions between photons and electrons using mathematics that described experimentally, the relativistic quantum field theory. Pagels explains that according to the quantum field theory, the intensity of the electromagnetic field, at a point in space, gives one the odds for finding a photon. He goes on to say anyone can get a feeling for the theory if one imagines an infinite 3-D mattress of ordinary steel springs floating in space. All these tiny springs are attach to one another forming a grid lattice pervading all of the three-dimensional space as a 3-D mattress. This entire lattice of springs represents a quantum field. He supposes it to be an electron field. If a single spring in the lattice is plucked, it will vibrate. This vibrating spring corresponds to the quantum, an electron associated with the field. If another distant spring is plucked it would represent another electron in the field. E = h f He imagines a second mattress of heavier springs, super-imposed on the first as representing a quark field. A vibration in that field corresponds to the quark particle, thus, each different mattress of springs, pervading all of space, corresponds to a different particle, according to what spring mattress was plucked. He then supposes them to be linked together with springs that represent the gluons. This space of connected spring mattresses, and also lattices, now represents an interacting quantum field theory. He then proposes that all should view the springs as being invisible.



After inventing relativistic quantum field theory in the 1930's and 40's, physicists came to realize that what they thought was a nothingness, a vacuum, was not at all empty. They thought of it as a plenum, actually consisting of particles and antiparticles being spontaneously created and annihilated. John Wheeler at the University of Texas said, on high in a plane the ocean looks smooth, but in a row boat it is choppy and turbulent. The same with space; on high it appears as a vacuum, a down right nothingness, but up close all hell is braking loose. Virtual particles are all over the place, but only for a period of Heisenberg's uncertainty relationship. Thinking about the tiny little invisible springs filling all of space, the vibrations of the virtual quanta seem to be above the level of the actual corresponding real particles. These vibrations act like waves in the vacuum, which represent possible quantum, or invisible quantum, because they are directly undetectable quanta. These new vacuum effects were found to exist in the empty space between the atomic nucleus and the orbiting electron. This field can sometimes create a positron-electron pair out of the churning sea of virtual quanta, which pair immediately annihilates. It is called vacuum polarization and it changes the electrons orbit. Willis Lamb, according to Pagels, measured the electron of a hydrogen atom with great precision using microwave techniques. Lamb's measurements compares with the quantum electrodynamic theory which has great success with this interaction. They now have operational high-energy machines that beam electrons against oppositely directed positrons to provide enough energy to bring virtual particle pairs in the vacuum into real existence; they are even able to pull quark-antiquark pairs into existence from the vacuum. The new charmed quark and antiquark pair is just a tiny wave on the vacuum ocean, consequently, given the right amount of energy it brings into existence a new hadron.


Physicists are now able to mathematically describe the interactions of quarks, leptons, and gluons using a quantum field theory they call quantum chromodynamics. It seems to follow similar ideas developed by the quantum electrodynamics and as one physicist put it, as though physicist have run out of new ideas. Today physicists use the gauge field theory with a new twist, called renormalization procedures, in calculating the interactions of virtual photons with electrons. Comparing the results with experiments there is remarkable agreement, but only after they adjust the parameters to fit the facts. Quantum chromodynamics use six different quarks, some leptons and eight gluons that stick quarks together to form hadrons, the real particles, like protons and neutrons. The physicist have machines that can make other kinds of hadrons, but they all brake down into the proton, neutron, electron and neutrinos of the real world. The remarkable thing about this theory is that, hard as they try, no one has yet seen a quark, the spason that form quarks is not even thought of. Quarks just do not exist in the world out side of the nuclear hadrons. The theory claims these trapped particles give mounting evidence that the totality of strong-interaction physics is due to completely hidden forces of nature. (These hidden forces are revealed by the SQT.) No body seems to know what these hidden forces are or how they are generated, however, I hoped to fathom them by presenting a new theory which is called "The Space Quantum Theory." It is not only involved with these hidden forces and how they act and interact with the dynamics of the world, and the thermodynamic theory that some physicist claim will one day cause the universe to collapse in a Big Crunch, as opposed to the Big Bang that is supposed to have created the world, but it also explains the mechanism holding the world together in a stable condition.


The Big Bang theory is the result of a speculative idea that had its beginning in the years from 1912 to 1923 by Vesto Slipher. The astronomer made careful measurements of the shift in the color of light emitted by nearby galaxies. He found that most galaxies had light that shifted toward the red end of the spectrum. Light from objects moving away shift to a lower frequency, similarly to the lowering of the sound of a train's horn, when the train is moving away from us. It is called the Doppler Shift. Hence, Slipher's discovery was called the "redshift" A cosmological model invented by Willem de Sitter influenced by the solution of one of Einstein's general relativity equations by the Russian mathematician, Alexander Friedman, in 1922, predicting an expanding universe, fitted nicely with Slipher's observations; the redshift was referred to as the "De Sitter effect." Edwin Hubble became extremely interested in this redshift phenomenon during the 1920's. He spent a great deal of time taking measurements of celestial objects, and came to the conclusion that they indicated the distance of an object. In 1929, he announced his data indicated that the galaxies were moving apart at a rate directly proportional to their distance from the Milky Way. The distant is measured in light years, thus, giving the number of years ago that light left the celestial object. These measurements, made in light years, also tell how far back in time they can be seen. The estimate by present day cosmologist is that the birth of the universe happen, somewhere about 20 billion years ago. See Fig 8

It was then assumed by cosmologist that since it appears the universe is in a state of expansion and all galaxies are moving away from one another, then, at one time, their energies must all have been squeezed together in one place, at one point, before the beginning of time. They calculate that the life of the universe began with a Big Bang. George Gamow and his colleagues, back in 1948, predicted that the universe began with a Hot Big Bang. That, about one hundred seconds after singularity, one quarter of all the protons and neutrons that had been created earlier, should have changed into helium, along with a small amount of deuterium. This prediction fitted the facts that 25 percent of the mass of all matter in the cosmos was helium, the other 75 percent being made up mostly of hydrogen, with a small percentage for all other elements. Another significant idea of they assumed was that after so many billions of years, what was an extremely "Hot Universe," had cooled down to a very cold universe of about five degrees Kelvin.



In 1963, a theory called the Space Quantum Theory was published by the author. It postulated that all space is infinite in extension and that it is quantized giving the quanta the name spacetron ( pronounced spas-e-tron ). It further postulates that all mass in the universe is compose of vibrating spacetrons. The theory does not start the universe with a Hot Big Bang, but rather with an inflationary period, followed by a period of the accumulation of many energy pockets which evolved into quasars. In 1964 Arnold Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered this 3 degree background radiation of Gamow by accident which proved to be truly distributed evenly throughout the whole universe. The excitement generated by the discovery of the Fossil Glow, as it was called, seemed to indicate the correctness of the Big Bang Theory, so the development of the SQT was discontinued for the time being in 1964. Many cosmologist since have come to believe that the Hot Big Bang is probably the way the universe began, but there are exceptions. Stephen Hawking, the very gifted mathematician of black hole fame, in an 1985 interview with John Boslough said, "The odds against a universe like ours emerging out of something like the Big Bang are enormously high". He along with others are finding its concept hard to reconcile with new particle theories that have been contrived recently. What John Wheeler said about viewing the ocean on high in a airplane - it looks smooth, likewise when viewing space from on high it too looks smooth, but up close in a boat on the high seas the water is rough and churning, likewise down on the quantum energy level all hell is breaking loose in the form of virtual particles, this together with what Hawking's said encouraged me to further development of the SQT.



The galaxies apparently stretch away into space without end, as far as can be determine from observation. The general distribution of these celestial units seem to have large-scale homogeneity and isotropic, that is, it manifests the same physical properties in all directions. Cosmologist speculate, judging from the redshift in the spectrum lines emitted by the atoms in a distant galaxy, their wavelengths indicate they are moving away, not from any motion of their own, but rather by the expansion of the space between galactic clusters. This means that space within the cluster, or for that matter within a galaxy, is not expanding, rather, cosmologist think the pure unadulterated space between galaxies is in a state of expansion, the galaxies are just going along for the ride. Does the measured values of the wavelength, judging from the redshift, really imply that the galaxies are receding from the Milky Way, or could there possibly be some other explanation for the phenomena? Problems with the Big Bang, and its various implications, that all mass once existed in a space not even as large as an atom, have many astronomers and physicists searching for some alternative explanation, ever since the idea was presented. They seem to think that this scenario requires a cosmic god to light the fuse of the cosmic bomb to get the universe started, which they reject. Any idea, so far conceivable, seems to require a prime mover to get things going. It appears that scientist are only capable of devising the universe after they have passed through the doorway of the exact moment of creation. It is left up to the philosophers, metaphysicians, and theologians to open that door and to peer back into the beyond. Hawking and Brandon Carter believe the universe is the way it is today for if it were otherwise, there would be nobody to ask the question; why is the universe the way one seems to observe it? They discovered nature exhibits an extremely delicate balance between the four forces of the universe in its present day existence. For instance, they claim that if the strong force was any weaker, the only stable atom would be hydrogen. Simply no other elements could exist, consequently, the world as known it would not exist. John Wheeler at the University of Texas, believes in the endless cycles of cosmic expansion and contraction. He agrees with Hawking and Cater who believe that the universe is fine-tuned to produce life, the anthropic principle. He claims that any universe that does not produce life is stillborn and is a failed universe. This is the principle of "observership". It is an extension of the quantum idea that without an observer there is no subatomic physics. That is, without an observer there is no need for a master builder of physical laws and consequently a need for a creation. It seems ever since Einstein declared that there was no ether, or even a need for an ether in order for electromagnetic waves to propagate, the ideas of space became unintelligible, a void, in the advance of cosmology. Not that his idea was necessarily incorrect, the Michelson and Morley experiments found no ether wind associated with the movement of the earth, but because cosmologist gave up the idea of finding a solution to how electromagnetic waves propagated, light and energy became a thing unto its self with no other means of support.


There is a "Missing Link" between the understanding of relativity, on the one hand, and quantum mechanics on the other. The problem physicists had in the past with uniting the theory of relativity with quantum mechanics, has to do with symmetry. The theories do not seem to be compatible. The Theory of Relativity deals with space structure, while Quantum Mechanics concerns itself with the material substance in space. They are as far apart as night and day, but like night and day there is a connecting factor. Where relativity looks at the universe and the world with intent on discerning its structural qualities, quantum mechanics sees the world in terms of its individual mass parts, that is, when it can find them, for they seem elusive and statistical at best. There is a quantum of uncertainty that goes along with the quantum of reality, because it cannot say exactly where things are. At best, quantum mechanics can only tell where is the best place to look, in order to find a particle, but when found its momentum is unknown, since it must be stopped or changed by the detection.

Einstein relates that light itself, the electromagnetic wave of space, moves with a constant speed and no material thing can move faster in space than light. Material things can not move with the speed of light or else they become light, and when light is slowed down, it becomes mass, potential energy. Perhaps the most crucial significance Maxwell describes, concerning energy or electrodynamics, is the very operation of the elasticity of space, space that restores itself, which sustains energy. Space is quantized! This is the Space Quantum Connection.


It is an experimental fact, there is a fundamental quantity of potential energy, the neutron, which space can support and maintain in its potential state of being, and this, only within the atom. Outside of the atom the neutron decays into a proton-electron pair, plus a neutrino. All other quantities of potential energy brake down through the decay process into these units. These are the only units that space is capable of maintaining and supporting in this day and age for any great length of time. It is a postulate of the Space Quantum Theory that time alters the quality and quantity of space. As a matter of fact, it is the contention of the theory that this alteration of space, that is, the result of space expansion, is time, without spacial change time has no meaning. Without environmental change time is meaningless. It is also compatible with the theory that higher development of the elements were once tolerated by the spacetronic field that are now prohibited. When they are forced into existence today by high energy machines they immediately decay into the normal particles. Perhaps one could detect these higher elements in the galaxies as they existed thousands of years ago. The means is at the disposal of cosmologist to travel back in time via the light that emanated from celestial objects long ago. If higher elements could be found to exist in the light spectrum of those distant galaxies it certainly would be a plus for the Space Quantum Theory.

The theory predicts that the expansion of space requires the creation of neutrons, but it also predicts that the decay of mass of higher elements occurs, thus, balancing the energy of space expansion that is responsible for holding neutrons together. The adjustment occurs with time, for instance, the decay of uranium and other radioactive elements requires many years. Having considered Newton's Laws, Relativity, Maxwell's Equations, Quantum Mechanics, the expanding universe and the notions of Stephen Hawking and John Wheeler it is now time to have a look at all of these ideas from a combined perspective.


The theory claims that all space is quantized and since it is already known that the space between the galaxies is in a state of expansion, hence, it must be understand that each spacetron, as the space quantum is called, individually is in a state of expansion. Spacetrons do not occupy space. They are space, that is, they are vibrating integral units of a "3-D Dynamic Universal Field"; each unit having an inalienable right to a certain quantity of space, and a certain quantity of energy; a self-sustaining pressure; consequently, its space cannot be transferred without compensation. It means that if a spacetron expands to occupy more space, then, it must exercise a quantity of energy (pressure) in return for the space it has acquired. By the same token if a spacetron takes in energy, (pressure) that is, acquires more internal pressure than it is entitled to have, it must give up a portion of its space in return for the acquired energy.


1. The Law of Self Preservation: -the space that composes the universe is quantized; the quantum is called a spacetron; - the spacetron cannot be destroyed.

2 . The Law of Compensation: - when a spacetron expands it gives up energy, (looses pressure) it takes in space, when a spacetron gives up space it takes in energy. (gains in pressure) (This is in occordence with Newton's third law)

3. The Law of Evolution: - the expansion of the spacetron generates the impetus force that creates radiant energy and mass.

4. The Law of Motion: - the impetus force moves radiant energy and mass through the spacetronic field.

5 The Law of Space. The energy of the spacetronic field equals C^2. All spacetrons that compose space are space quanta in a state of vibration with energy equal to the speed of light squared.

6. The Law of Mass. Radiant energy and mass in the universe equals the amplitude frequency modulations of the spacetronic field by means of expansion and contraction of spacetronic units.

7 The Law of Creation. The creation of the universe began when excited energy pockets evolved into quasars and galaxies about 20 billion years ago. Spacetrons that compose radiant energy, vibrating at the speed of light, propagated energy linearly through the spacetronic field, and this energy field is termed, the electromagnetic wave; light, heat, radio, and others. Spacetrons that compose mass vibrate below the speed of light. They transmit this energy through space in an electromagnetic rotory manner that we call neutrons, protons, and electrons, which form atoms. Atoms create molecules that form all matter.



The theory simply assumes that time began when the universal field first began to expand, thus, creating pockets of contracted spacetrons that generated high energy spacetronic waves which moved with the speed of light between the packets. These electromagnetic waves are now being detected by radio and optical astronomers and the further back in time these units are seen the greater the redshift of their light. This redshift is caused by space expansion between celestial bodies. The theory refutes the idea that these distant celestial units are speeding away with almost the speed of light. In fact, it claims they maintain a relative uniform distance and are pushed together into superclusters leaving huge voids. See Fig 9

Fig 9

The question then remains, "Why does the light coming from these object produce a redshift?" It is caused by the expansion of the spacetrons that exist between those bodies and the Milky Way, as the passage of time proceeds. As these spacetronic units expand, by the "Law of Compensation", other spacetronic units must contract and in the process create mass and radiant energy. Therefore, celestial bodies do not move apart because of this expansion factor. It seems more likely that as mass is rapidly created in the central nuclei, relatively close galaxies can even be pushed together in spite of the expansion of the spacetronic fields between them, and because of the expansion of fields around them, like Andromeda, which is moving toward the Milky Way.

Back in the 1960's when the SQT theory was first composed, Martin Ryle and his colleagues at Cambridge were making extensive counts of the number of radio sources that can be detected in the sky. Some of these sources have a high intensity and others are much weaker. Ryle sorted out these many sources defining the various categories by experimental measurements. What Ryle discovered was that the strongest radio sources are the ones that originated billions of years ago, at the edge of the beginning of time. Ryle's survey shows that galaxies are not the strong radio sources, rather, galaxies are poor radio wave emitters. This suggests an evolutionary trend from radio galaxies, in the distant past, to the huge mass generating spiral galaxies that propagated into the many clusters and supercluster of galaxies seen. The first conglomerate of energy is thought to be radio galaxies, whose pockets of compressed spacetrons gradually grew in size and formed into a more compacted, less vibrating, spacetronic fields. The compacted field caused by the expansion of the universal expanding field impinging upon it, emits various radio waves generated in these pockets. As pockets grow, more and more spacetrons compress and their vibrations became less and less active, until they freeze into what I call "Spasons", which form a vibrating string field of rotationing energy moving around as a compact field of vibrating spacetronics.


The theory conceives compressed units of spacetrons line up in short strings, oriented in east west, north south, up down positions. They form centers of spacetronic vibrations that move along universal superstrings that stretch from one end of the universe to the other. The short string spasons associate in units of three, positive (N. S.), negative (E .W.), and neutral (U. D.) strings, they form gyroscopes. While spacetrons are 10^40 meters by comparison the spason string is of the Planck length, 10^-35 meters . Three spasonic fields assemble to form what are now identify as quarks. Quarks associate together in units of three, also, to form a basic unit of mass. When this formation, caled a neutron, is pushed out of the atomic compressional center; since it has given up all of the space it is capable of giving up, any further impingement of energy becomes kinetic. In this new environment they decay and form a proton and an electron, the hydrogen atom, which form the molecules. Fig 10 and 11

Fig 10


Very shortly the neutron, in its liberated environment, decays to form a proton-electron pair, the hydrogen atom; a compressed nucleus and an expanded field. The unit absorbs and gives up a quantity of universal compression energy, as the case may be. This energy is in the form of electromagnetic waves, enabling the unit to stay in equilibrium with the universal spacetronic expanding field. The units also unite to form molecules, absorbing neutrons to further stabilize the mass. Fig-11 represents the hydrogen molecule made of two deuterium atoms. It is not according to scale, in any sense of the word. For instance, if the area of the atom was enlarged to equal that of Philadelphia, the nucleus would be the size of the statue of Billy Penn that sets on top of City Hall; the electrons would be circling around in the suburbs. All particles of mass are organized electromagnetic rotory waves, existing in the universal spacetronic field of energy which constitutes the world. This mass organization is depicted in the figure below as conceived by the Space Quantum Theory.


The energy field surrounding the molecule is composed of space units called spacetrons. The organized mass units named spasons are groups of highly compressed spacetrons; strings of spacetrons forming gyroscopic spacewaves. Three strings form the gyroscopic units, two positive (moving), one negative (axial); it takes three spason units to form the quark. Quarks group together in threes, forming neutrons, with two down and one up quark; the protons have two up and one down. On encountering a neutrino, the energy of an energetic spacetronic field, one of the neutron quarks flips and the neutron becomes a proton. If it encounters an antineutrino the quark flips back and the unit becomes a neutron again.


Three spasons combine to comprise the quark. Three quarks form a hadron which can be either a neutron or proton. The neutron has two down quarks and one up quark. The proton has two up quarks and one down quark. The energy field of the quark is called a gluon and it is this force or boson that operates in the "Strong Field" that bind quarks together as one unit, a neutron or a proton. The proton-electron constitutes a hydrogen atom. The proton by absorbing the energy of a neutrino can switch to a neutron and by the same token a neutron, by giving up the neutrino, the spason binding energy, can switch to a proton. ejecting an electron, one of the spason strings. This whole process is generated by the spason within the quark and the force field which operates between the nucleus and the electrons of atoms and also between atoms themselves, the electromagnetic field called the photon. The diagram above is not according to scale. The atom as well as all mass is composed of modulations upon the universal field of spacetronic energy, which expansion impetus constantly supplies force to the particles of mass. This impetus force is required for the movement and organizational existence of mass. The spacetronic expansion factor is the force that binds all mass together and can be measured in electron volts. The molecules are larger and easier to break apart since their binding energy is the existing expansion of the spacetronic field call gravity. Its energy is appreciably less on this level.

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